Facts About Volcanology

In the simplest terms, a volcano is a rupture in the Earth’s crust which forces out volcanic ash and lava. The world has many volcanoes, some of which are active and others are dormant, but throughout history, this force of nature and resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as animals. Volcanologists are the scientists who study these geological features.

Why the study on volcanoes can be supplied by several reasons by volcanologists but mainly, volcanology exists to predict volcanic eruptions. In the end it is likely to save several lives. Yes, volcanologists may measure the seismic activity and even the level of gases too but it can’t be totally told when a volcano is to erupt or how much impact its eruption will have.

In the last 50 years, more than 25,000 people have been killed because of volcanic eruptions. In terms of loss of life, the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia was the most catastrophic of these volcanic events, with more than 22,000 people being killed as a result of the eruption. In the United States, the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 was the most destructive in our nation’s history, causing the death of 57 people and causing millions of dollars in damage

Many more tools help volcanologists to materialize their studies. Clinometers or inclinometers for instance are important and known as tilt meter. The angles of slopes are measured using clinometers. You’ll find that the tilt meter is made especially to measure even the small changes on horizontal levels. Measuring even the smallest changes on the volcanic changes for the scientists to note is made accurate by this device. Volcanologists turn to another helpful tool in measuring seismic waves – the seismometer.

Seismic activity is an obvious occurrence prior any volcanic eruption. Different gases are also released which volcanologists measure in terms of their varying levels using special devices. One such device is a correlation spectrometer and this one is meant to measure the levels of sulfur dioxide. Know that the rise in the level of this particular type of gas surrounding a volcano is significant sign that an eruption is possible.

When volcanologists begin their study on a volcano they are likely to use several surveying tools including optical instruments and theodolites. Once the survey has been done rock samples are likely to be collected by them because they can tell so much historical prospective using the rocks found in the area of the volcano. A rock hammer of course is still truly useful for this even when there can already be high-tech equipment around.

Carey Bourdier enjoys blogging reviews on precision scientific instruments. For more details about optical instruments like an optical clinometer, or to find more details about a telemetric alignment system, visit the Warren Knight website today.

Salient Facts Regarding Calibrating Equipment & Calibration

Calibration services are something that thousands of companies need every year. The act of calibrating ensures that many different types of machinery and devices are functioning exactly as they should. These devices include everything from large pieces of production equipment to automobiles as well as optical devices and much more.

In order to ensure that a device is calibrated, an expert is needed. This is a person who uses a piece of calibration equipment as a standard and tests another device against that standard. If the tested piece is not calibrated, adjustments will have to be made in order to ensure that both devices are aligned. Otherwise production problems most certainly will occur and these problems can be serious enough to affect all levels of production.

At some companies, calibration services are needed quite often and at other companies these services may only be needed once or twice per year. Often, outsourcing your calibration services makes good financial sense and sometimes, it is even required to use an independent contractor and have them bring in calibration equipment and provide you with readings. These specialists may also be able to complete repairs or provide you with certification if needed.

It might be surprising to note that there are all sorts of calibration equipment being used today just as there are all sorts of devices that need calibration. One category, for instance, includes electrical calibration equipment. These devices range from electrical standards to electrical calibrators to bench multimeters and more. Power calibrators and oscilloscope calibrators also fall into the category of electrical calibrators.

It is not hard to imagine why various devices and machinery must measure temperature accurately. Consider the food industry as one example where temperature is important. Many foods must be heated to certain levels for safety, and without temperature calibration, a company would not be able to ensure that the products were heated properly. Therefore, temperature calibration is another type of calibration service that is quite common and devices such as calibration baths and industrial calibrators may be needed for these services.

Of course, these two types of calibration services are just the tip of the ice berg. Other types include flow calibration or pressure calibration and some companies might need RF calibration or another service. Some companies perform all of these services, while others simply specialize in one or two distinct areas of calibration services.

Carey Bourdier likes blogging reviews on precision scientific instruments. To get further details regarding instrument calibration services, or to gather more information about optical instruments, visit the Warren Knight site now.

On The Level: The Many Instruments Needed For Leveling

If you thought a level simply looked like the narrow yellow levels you pick up at the hardware store, you might be surprised to learn that there are many types of levels and instrument used for leveling purposes. All sorts of professionals need to use levels for purposes such as ensuring that a property is level for building or equipment is level before using it for production. Here is some information about different types of levels.

For instance, one commonly used level that about which you might be unfamiliar is the Abney level. This level utilizes a bubble level as well as an inclinometer and also a helpful sighting tube. The inclinometer helps with angle measuring, while the bubble level, also known as a spirit level, helps one ensure that something is level. We\’ve all probably seen a level with a clear tube that includes a bubble in its liquid. This little tube is part of the Abney level, but beyond the tube, this device looks nothing at all like the typical levels used by the home handyman.

While the device certainly looks unusual to most of us, it is quite commonly used because it is very inexpensive and also very lightweight. An Abney level easily can be taken out to any type of construction site or taking to an area where surveying is needed. Additionally, it also might be used in a national forest or protected wildlife area to measure tree height. Bringing a great deal of heavy equipment into a forested area would be difficult, so an Abney level can be a great option.

Beyond these Abney levels, there are other devices that also incorporate a bubble level, which again also might be called a spirit level. A frame spirit level, for instance, looks like a small square. This commonly will be used by a contractor or perhaps some type of engineer to adjust both vertical surfaces and horizontal surfaces. Because it is square, with bubble levels on the vertical and horizontal plane, you can use it to ensure that walls are level to the floor or perhaps shelves are level or for some other task.

Beyond these two levels, you might encounter a digital protractor, which often is called an electronic protractor. Again, this small device is very lightweight, which makes it easy to take just about anywhere, although it does tend to also come with a higher cost. Still, this handy electronic protractor includes both a clinometer (also called an inclinometer) and a level, so it can be used to measure angles and well as for various leveling tasks.

These are just a few types of levels that are in use today. Levels are used in a wide variety of settings from helping with the alignment of industrial equipment to the construction of buildings, homes and other large structures. Without leveling instruments and other precise instruments, engineering and construction would not be nearly as successful or as safe.

Carey Bourdier loves blogging about precision scientific instruments. For more information about surveying instruments such as an electronic protractor, or to find further information about a telemetric alignment system, visit Warren Knight now.

Surveyor Equipment: 5 Special Devices Surveyor’s Use

Surveyors are those important individuals that study land for various purposes. In some cases, a land surveyor may be asked to help with the construction of a road or a new building. In other instances, a surveyor might help to settle a boundary dispute regarding two properties. There are also mining surveyors who help construct safe mines of all kinds. These surveyors use a variety of helpful pieces of equipment for their many calculations.

Chances are you’ve seen at least one of these surveying devices in action. The angle measuring tool known as the theodolite is very commonly seen, especially by road engineers and road surveyors. The theodolite is used for angle measuring in the horizontal and vertical planes. In some cases, a surveyor might opt for a total station, which includes the theodolite and a distance meter. Either way, this device can help ensure that roads are graded properly and that land is level for building.

Angle measuring is something needed for many different applications, including many types of surveying. One device that helps with angle measuring is the inclinometer, which calculates the angles in a slope. A surveyor also might refer to the inclinometer as simply a clinometer, but the device is still the same. In addition to land surveying tasks, one can use this angle measuring tool for ocean navigation, installing solar panels at precisely the right angles, measuring tree height in a forest and much more.

Some surveying companies offer more than land surveying and construction surveying as part of their realm of services. Sometimes they also employ engineers and provide what are known as alignment services, which means that specialized alignment instruments are used to align production equipment or industrial equipment, and this ensures that products and parts are created to exact specifications. When it comes to surveying and alignment, we are talking about the alignment of manmade objects such as a bridge or a building or a highway.

There are many different types of alignment instruments and these include many kinds of alignment telescopes as well as alignment collimators. These types of devices will be used by surveyors that study structures to measure or calculate movement over time. It might be monitoring changes in a bridge over the years or perhaps the movement of a bridge or road after a seismic event, such as an earthquake. The alignment instruments can gauge how much movement has occurred since the last calculations were made.

In addition to the angle measuring tools, optical instrument and alignment instruments mentioned in this article, there are many devices needed by surveyors and engineers. If you wish to study and become certified as a surveyor you definitely will learn how to use an assortment of unique and helpful devices.

Carey Bourdier loves writing about precision scientific instruments. For more information about surveying products such as a surveyor compass, or to find other alignment instruments, visit the Warren Knight site now.

Facts Regarding Compass Tripods & Surveying Tripods

Many people only think about tripods in relation to photography, and these helpful stands do help professional photographers and shutterbugs keep cameras stable in order to produce high-quality photographic images. However, this is just one type of tripod. There are several varieties used by many different professions.

The compass tripod is a handy tool that has been used by surveyors for hundreds of years. This also might be known as a surveyor\’s tripod or perhaps a survey compass tripod. Whatever the name, this three-legged device can hold a variety of important surveying gear such as a total station, a theodolite or a compass. The theodolite is one of the most common surveying tools, and this important device aids a surveyor when he or she is measuring angles. The total station is a device that includes both a theodolite and an electronic distance meter or EDM.

The surveyor\’s compass is another tool that might be mounted on to a compass tripod. Surveyors and other types of engineers also might refer to this type of compass as a circumferentor. Before theodolites were developed, the circumferentor was the main tool of the surveying trade. While it\’s true that modern theodolites are used far more these days than a surveyor\’s compass, the circumferentor is sometimes used by professionals such as mining engineers or foresters. It doesn\’t really matter which of these common devices are used, a compass tripod or an elevation tripod will make the job much easier.

In addition to many types of stationary tripods, there are also important tripods known as elevation tripods. These can hold equipment such as the total station or a theodolite and are helpful because you can adjust the elevation of the tripod to take additional measurements. You don\’t have to take off the theodolite and move the leg height; you can simply make adjustments while the total station or another device is mounted to the elevation tripod. Considering how heavy some of the equipment can be, using an elevation tripod can make your work much easier.

An elevation tripod is quite sturdy, and while they are certainly heavier than your standard compass tripod, they can handle both the weight of your devices as well as being able to stay firmly in place as you make elevation adjustments. You simply turn a crank or lever and adjust the elevation tripod to whatever elevation you might need. This saves you time and ensures that your measurements from a specific point are as accurate as possible.

The compass tripod and elevation tripod are two types of tripods commonly used by surveyors and engineers. When shopping for a tripod, it is important to look at several characteristics of the tripod. These include the weight of the elevation tripod or the compass tripod as well as the weight capacity. If you will be using your theodolite or another mounted device in a variety of climate settings, it is wise to select compass materials that stand up well against temperature changes, humidity changes and certain weather conditions. It also may be important to select a tripod that is non-magnetic. There are many compass tripods and elevation tripods out there that are sure to be able to handle whatever you need.

Carey Bourdier loves writing about precision scientific instruments. To get more details about surveying products like a surveyor compass, or to find other alignment instruments, go to the Warren Knight site now.

Compasses, The Jacob Staff & Other Interesting Tools

Every professional uses some type of tool to help them get through the work day. For some people, this tool is a computer, for others the tool is a hammer or a forklift. For surveyors and engineers, tools such as a surveyor\’s compass and a Jacob staff might come in handy. Here is a quick look at a few tools with multiple uses for a few unique professions.

You might simply think that a compass is just a compass, but there are actually quite a few different styles of compasses. Generally, people are familiar with the small circular tool that we all used on scouting adventures or hiking excursions. Today, people often simply use their smartphone, which usually comes standard with a compass. While a standard compass simply identifies magnetic north in relation to the user, a surveyor\’s compass is a device that also provides information about horizontal angles, which is a much-needed measurement for surveying applications.

We all know what a typical compasses looks like, it\’s simple a round device that is labeled with direction and features a magnetic needle. This needle is the part that points to magnetic north to help hikers and navigators and others determine direction. With a surveyor\’s compasses, additional tools are added to help with measurement. A sighting device is mounted onto the surveyor\’s compass and placed onto the north-south axis. From there, you would mount this compass onto some form of tripod and sometimes on a Jacob staff prior to use.

The Jacob staff actually refers to more than one device. In some cases, one would hold a Jacob staff and use it for mathematical calculations. This type of Jacob staff would be held up just below one\’s eyes and was used by astronomers and also was a helpful tool for sailors. This type of Jacob staff dates back to the 14th century and was invented by a renowned mathematician. When it comes to surveying, the Jacob staff is simply what you would mount your surveyor\’s compass on to hold it steady, and it was commonly used for this purpose from the 1800s and still is used today.

There are many devices that can be supported by a Jacob staff in addition to a surveyor\’s compass. Other types of compasses, such as a forester\’s compass, might be mounted on the Jacob staff. You also might place an Abney level on a Jacob staff or perhaps a device known as a graphometer, which is yet another surveying instrument that can be used to measure angles.

While a Jacob staff is a handy choice when using lighter weight devices such as the surveyor\’s compass or a graphometer, heavier devices should be mounted onto a sturdy tripod. The theodolite and the total station, both of which are commonly used by surveyors and engineers to record measurements, can be very heavy and a tripod is a much better option.

Carey Bourdier loves blogging about precision scientific instruments. For more information about alignment tools like a maple wood Jacob Staff, go to the Warren Knight website now.